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CASE: A Case Analysis Support Environment


Abstract

The synergy between hypertext tools for organizing large, heterogeneous databases and functioning models as explanations of processes may permit us to address a class of problems remaining largely bypassed and undervalued in the study of human learning. If these "power tools for the mind" permit us better to manage and model complexity, they may bring within our grasp a series of problems long considered beyond the reach of well articulated understanding. One such cluster of problems centers on how cognitive development of the individual relates to particular interactions. Case study has long been an effective tool in unravelling the more intricate patterns of human behavior and development. Its focus on individual behavior leads to the detailed observations necessary to understand an individual's performance. As contrasted with methods which attempt to "hold all else equal," case study traces in detail the path of change, and so it is the method of choice in studying learning. Technology has enhanced the dependability of case study materials: videotape permits capture of enough of a context to permit later interpretation in detail. This blessing is a burden in disguise, for there is no balanced development of techniques of analysis. Computers can facilitate the analysis of case material to redress that imbalance. One may hope their use will introduce a new period in the study of intelligence, one where cognitive scientists will have at last the tools to study the development of knowledge in its full particularity.

An Example of a Case Study Corpus

Since significant learning appears from processes which are extended in time, its understanding depends upon a multitude of interactions between what is in the individual's mind and the accidents of everyday experience. This stance has led me to study and record the cognitive development of one of my daughters from the time she was 18 weeks old through the sixth year of her life. The targeted theme of this study is the interrelationship, if any, between the development of language skills and knowledge and spatial knowledge. Every week we have videotaped experiments and our play together; we supplemented those mechanical records with extensive naturalistic observation. The total number of tapes comprisiong the corpus is 240 (each containing, typically, three experimental sessions). For the first three years, the experiments divide into sets with two different foci. The first is a continuing series about Peggy's developing object knowledge; this material relates to literature of the Piagetian paradigm and is intended as a calibrating spine of the study. The second set of experiments is more a miscellany, each one drawing its inspiration from what my wife or I could notice as most potentially fecund in the child's behavior. Some incidents of the naturalistic observations are striking in themselves, such as the child's climbing up to a tea table -- when she had not yet walked -- and pushing it across the floor, walking behind it. Other observations were driven by quasi-regular reflection, and they tend to focus around my theoretical concerns, such as the interplay of language production and other dimensions of development.

Using Hypertext to Cope with an Extensive Corpus

The information captured in so rich a medium as videotape is beyond all hope of transcribing completely in any serial symbolic form, such as text based protocols. Any theory which initially selects the material to be transcribed must be a preliminary, imperfect theory -- but its selection criteria will screen out possibly critical information. We can begin, however, with partial transcriptions and use the file updating capability of computer based storage to extend the transcribed corpus at need. Call this strategy variable depth transcription. The researcher records what he imagines as relevant, with such pointers to source material as to make its deepening at need a matter of course. As his analysis leads to improved theory, that theory will suggest the need for deeper analysis of parts of the corpus and their more extended transcription. The extended database will then suggest enhancements of the theory. A positive feedback loop is established. Hypertext facilities now existing and under development permit such an approach. They need to be applied to two problems: recording important details and their interconnections in on line databases; and developing functioning models of cognitive structures and their changes, based on the empirical material of the corpus. These are the objectives of the CASE project.

Figure 1: CASE, a Case Analysis Support Environment

Data Files:

Progress to date with the CASE project has been extensive but limited in kind. The original objective of this research was to explore the use of hypertext systems as a tool for advancing the analysis and modelling of detailed case studies. The conceptual focus was two-fold, on developing a database and psychological analyses, and on exploring the utility of hypertext for tasks involving the administration of complex bodies of information and even the development of and interconnection of functional models with them. Such remain the long term objectives of the research. In practice, to date the effort has focussed on establishing the overall structure into which the case material will be fit over time. Significant segments of the corpus of naturalistic observations have been entered into the online database. We have followed this procedure:

  1. information in the case corpus is brought on-line as ascii text files.
  2. those files and imported to the Notecards environment where they are broken up into small text records (stored on individual cards)
  3. an administrative structure is imposed on those records by storing them in hierarchically related systems of fileboxes.
  4. thematic structures are imposed on those records by relating records in the notecards to one another with links whose type varies across a spectrum of issues.
  5. the conclusion is a network of database of records which the analyist can navigate and modify as his questions and knowledge change.

A First Implementation

The current Dandylion database, developed at the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and social Sciences (ARI) in the first six months of the project, occupies more than 3400 pages of the Xerox hard disk storage (this is approximately 1,700,000 characters). Figure 2 shows a top level view of that database. The central structure of the database derives from three indices, or main categories of data. Videotapes represents a catalog of the videotape corpus. Vignettes is a catalog of notes and short stories based on naturalistic observation. Citations is a reference list of the books that I have read or might read that I think should be relevant to analysis of the corpus.

Bushy Trees

The vignettes catalog in Figure 2 is a list of themes in the vignettes of naturalistic observations in the database. This text entered the database as an ascii file. The vignette database itself is a filebox of notecards, each of which contains text manipulable by a WYSIWYG editor. Each vignette card is created with text selected from the vignette catalog, cut, and pasted into a notecard. As needed, text of individual vignettes has been transcribed from the manuscript to a notecard and inserted in the vignettes filebox. The structure of the file is shallow and broad (720 notecards). The file is logically sequential, ordered by serial date from the day of the subject's birth. The sequence is explicit in the notecard labels through not in the physical organization of the database. For example, VN054 contains notes of motor development observed in the 54th day of the subjects life. Themes and issues that relate one vignette to another are represented by typed links threading the vignettes along a string of logical interconnection. The primary link types represent categories of infant development (motor, perceptual, cognitive, social) and study focal themes (language, physical objects, methodology). Since any protocol may contain information relevant to several themes, the threads interweave through the collection of protocols in a complex but comprehensible fashion.

Each sub-filebox in the videotape database of Figure 2 represents a single physical tape. Each videotape is divided into scenes (another subfilebox) named with a label of the form Tnnn.keyword, where nnn is the serial date in the subject's life and the keyword names either the other persons in the scene (a parent, sibling, or pet is typical) or the experimental materials used by the subject. Each scene is, as appropriate and as needed, further analyzed into thematically defined episodes which contain in turn sequences of actions, speech, and commentary by experimenters. For example, videotape "VT127.P018" in Figure 2 names a physical tape made on the 127th day of Peggy's life (in her eighteenth week).


Overview of the Notecards CASE Files Structure

The subboxes "T127.Gretchen" and T127.Objects" specify scenes in which the subject was with her mother first and then with a specific collection of experimental objects. This database is also shallow and bushy, containing about 750 fileboxes representing scenes (each subdivided into episodes as well). The reason for this labelling is so that a simple lisp function can sort vignette and videptape card titles within a specific date range and order the material to support the correlation and interlacing of events noted in the naturalistic observation and recorded in the videotapes.

Progress and Limiations

The initial efforts in the first six months of this project were directed primarily towards familiarization with the system, database design, and the beginnings of database construction. Database construction took place in the Smart Technologies Group of the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Washington, DC. The protocol material for the database was keyed online at a remote location as ascii files (now still available in this form), then mailed by arpanet to the laboratory at which they were integrated into the database by cutting and pasting text strings into notecards. At this point, I have available a structure with which I can begin the analysis and model building the corpus demands for its serious scientific exploration. Given that the database I'm constructing is very large and detailed, it should be no surprise that progress is slow, especially now that the effort has turned toward analysis of videotaped experiments. A beginning has been made in the analysis of videotape materials, but only at the top level of observation. The current phase may best be described as corpus adminstration. It is becoming clear that the effort will go forward in three waves which, although they will overlap, will follow this natural sequence. Corpus administration, corpus exploration, theory construction. The primary feedback loop ultimately will range between theory construction and corpus exploration, but before that can begin there must be a critical mass of material under review and at least partially online. Achieving that critical mass is the heart of the current effort. Since the psychological analysis needed to construct decent models of material in the Peggy corpus will take years, it should be no surprise that I have a need to work with other models now. During several years, I worked with Oliver Selfridge to develop simple models of interactive learning and implemented them in zetalisp on a Symbolics 3600. For a variety of reasons, I decided to convert those models to run in Object Logo on a Macintosh computer. I am now attempting to connect those models to their corpus in a project parallel to the CASE project effort.

The Psychology of the Particular

Many social scientists stand in awe of general theories. They typcially seek an abstract correspondence which will generally permit predictions that will cover many of the specific events that interest them. For me, the primary value of a general theory is more down to earth, more like what an engineer needs; it is the aid a theory offers in understanding and solving particular problems, such as what enabled a specific person to learn some particular knowledge in a given context. Why are case studies focussed on a single person worth paying attention to ? I believe these methods and objectives will help us approach a new way of doing psychology.

Kurt Lewin argued (1935) that psychology is now an Aristotelian science and will become a modern or Galilean science only when researchers shift their focus from finding cross classificatory correspondences to developing explicit explanations for series of events in concrete cases. In short, human psychology will become a science only when it begins solving problems in concrete cases, as one does in reading computer memory dumps or exploring machine learning. Lewin's specific proposals failed to engender such a transformation (see chapter 2 in Langer, 1967), yet there remains the sense that his attempt was profoundly right -- to move studies of mind from seeking correspondences to solving important problems in very specific and concrete cases.

The New Opportunity

If we can construct what Lewin refers to as "the pure case" (a corpus with a sufficiency of information to explain adequately all questions on which it might bear) and extend the modelling successes of function-oriented psychology, this should impact both theory formation and how one teaches psychology. The CASE project is one experiment in this spirit. We are trying to:

This method will also enhance the acceptability of the case study method by discriminating between the idiographic focus of the content of case studies and idiosyncratic interpretations of such studies. Such facilities will provide a kind of experimental workbench for students where they may undertake, as it were, a kind of apprenticeship in case study analysis under the tutelage of the case database developer.

Some may want to argue that such efforts are not scientific in the sense of permitting replicable experiments in other circumstances, but the effort is scientific in Peirce's broader sense -- an attempt to approach some imperfectly understood but well defined reality through seeking the convergence of opinion based on serious and extended inquiry. That is enough for me.

There is no magic in either cognitive modelling or the use of on-line tools for managing data, but their synergy will permit us to address and solve some long-standing, important problems in cognitive psychology. It is the problems which give the tools their importance. It is the new tools which give us some hope of coping with the problems by sharing our information, analyses, and ideas.

REFERENCES

K. Lewin. Aristotelian and and Galilean Modes of Thought in Contemporary Psychology. In A Dynamic Theory of Personality: Selected Papers of Kurt Lewin, McGraw Hill, 1935.

S. Langer. Idols of the Laboratory. Chapter 2 in Mind: An Essay on Human Feeling., (Vol.1). John Hopkins Press, 1967.

C. S. Peirce. The Fixation of Belief. In Chance, Love, and Logic (M. R. Cohen, ed.). Harcourt, Brace, and Co. 1923. Lessons from the History of Science. In Essays in the Philosophy of Science (Vincent Tomas, Ed.). Liberal Arts Press, 1957.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was undertaken through a senior research residency grant from the National Research Council at the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. My colleague, Joseph Psotka, director of the Smart Technologies Project at ARI ,was extraordinarily supportive and helpful. His suggestions have made this work much better than it could ever have been otherwise. Purdue has subsequently provided me a place and time to carry on this line of work.

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Learning and Computing | Education | Computing | Psychology | Artificial Intelligence |